Solo dos tribunales han aplicado la pena máxima de 40 años en el país

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Los homicidios durante robos y asaltos con armas de fuego ilegales o para robarle el arma de fuego a las víctimas son frecuentes en República Dominicana, donde los tribunales emiten sentencias condenatorias, pero no así la pena máxima de 40 años que está contemplada para estos casos en la Ley No. 631-16 sobre Armas, Municiones y Materiales Relacionados, vigente desde el 2 de agosto de 2016.

Fue en Semana Santa  que se “estrenó” esta condena de 40 años, sorprendiendo a muchos dominicanos que creían que la pena máxima era de 30 años, como establece el Código Penal de República Dominicana.

El argumento fue la violación al párrafo II de la ley que estipula que “cualquier persona física que le quite la vida a otra para cometer robo con violencia, poseyendo un arma de fuego ilegal, será´ castigada con una pena de 30 a 40 años de privación de libertad”.

La primera condena de 40 años fue emitida por el Segundo Tribunal Colegiado de Santo Domingo Este, el 22 de abril, contra Jesús Francisco Ramírez Guzmán, (Lili y/o Omali) acusado de matar al raso de la Fuerza Aérea, Polanco González,  a quien abordó como motoconchista y luego lo atracó y le quitó la vida.

Tres días después, el Primer Tribunal Colegiado de esa jurisdicción repitió la misma condena contra Mantovani Pericles Muñoz, de 29 años, por haberle ocasionado la muerte de un disparo de arma de fuego ilegal a Johnny Franklin Cuello Santil, durante un asalto.

La otra que también contempla 40 años de prisión, es la Ley No. 267-08 sobre Terrorismo y ya se aplicado en el país, aunque no con la pena total, sino de 35 años para  Frank Kelyn Holguín, hallado culpable de quemar un vagón del Metro de Santo Domingo, ocasionándole heridas y  quemaduras a seis personas.

¿Por qué tres años después es que se emiten las primeras condenas de 40 años?

Los juristas Cándido Simón y Carlos Novas coincidieron en el aumento de la pena no ha incidido en la reducción de la criminalidad en ningún país y se mostraron en desacuerdo con esa penalidad.

Citaron que el Código Penal condena el asesinato agravado por la premeditación, asechanza, la alevosía a 30 años y ley de armas a 40 años cuando además de esas agravantes tiene que el arma era ilegal.

Simón entiende que la ley no ha servido de nada y que  probablemente los jueces no emitan su sentencia como establece esa legislación porque el ministerio público no demuestra que el arma de fuego utilizada en el homicidio era ilegal.

“Tal vez el llamado sea a que los fiscales preparen mejor la investigación, de manera que le lleven al juez todos los componentes  que les permitan a los jueces aplicar esa ley con más efectividad”, al indicar el Ministerio Público debe llevar una certificación de que el homicida no tenía licencia de portar ningún tipo de armas.

Insistió en su rechazo a la ampliación de la pena, al explicar que cuando una persona  va a cometer un acto delictual no consulta las leyes, sino que los tres componentes principales son primero, lograr el objetivo, segundo la ruta de escape y tercero evitar la aprehensión  posterior. 

Mientras que Carlos Nova dice que a su entender el legislador se equivocó y estableció un agravante para castigar el homicidio con 40 años, que es el uso de arma ilegal.

Dijo que si es 40 años para los asesinatos con premeditación, asechanza y alevosía él estaría de acuerdo, pero sin importar si el arma fuera legal o ilegal “porque el muerto es muerto producido por una arma  legal o ilegal. ¿Eso cambia el  dolor?, ¿eso disminuye la aceptación? , ¿disminuye la ofensa a la sociedad? De ninguna manera. Eso es lo que se llama leyes de emergencia, en procura de acallar el clamor social de la falta  que tiene el Estado de dar respuesta  a la peligrosidad en que vive el ciudadano” explicó.

Sostuvo que lo que se debería hacer es  ser es modificar el Código Penal y llevar el asesinato a 40 años, porque  un asesinato, no importa en la condición en que se haga, no importa en la condición que se haga, no importa los componentes  es un asesinato.

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