Investigadores hallan señales antiguas en genomas humanos modernos

Con las nuevas herramientas de análisis del genoma, científicos han logrado avances significativos en nuestra comprensión de los orígenes de los humanos modernos y las antiguas migraciones. Pero tratar de encontrar el ADN antiguo, y mucho menos probar que el AND antiguo es ancestral para una población que vive hoy en día es extremadamente difícil.

Un nuevo estudio publicado en ‘Molecular Biology and Evolution’ se suma a este entendimiento al reconstruir genomas artificiales con los análisis del genoma de 565 individuos contemporáneos del sur de Asia para extraer señales antiguas que recapitulan la larga historia de la migración humana y la mezcla en la región.

“En general, nuestros resultados proporcionan una prueba de principio para la viabilidad de recuperar señales genéticas antiguas de sujetos humanos contemporáneos, como si fueran genomas del pasado incrustados en ámbar”, pone como ejemplo Luca Pagani, coordinadora de investigación del estudio.

El estudio fue dirigido por Burak Yelmen y Mayukh Mondal del Instituto de Genómica de la Universidad de Tartu, Estonia, y coordinado por Luca Pagani de la misma institución y de la Universidad de Padua, Italia. “Los componentes genéticos que logramos extraer de los genomas modernos son invaluables, dada la escasez de AND antiguo disponible en los restos humanos del sur de Asia, y nos permiten dilucidar la composición genética de las poblaciones antiguas que habitaban el área”, señala Burak Yelmen, primer autor del estudio.

Al evaluar los eventos de mezcla que llevaron a las antiguas poblaciones humanas a formar los asiáticos del sur contemporáneos, los científicos también notaron que una parte de los genomas no se había mezclado como se esperaba, como si las variantes genéticas que evolucionaron en el sur de Asia o las que llegaron de Eurasia Occidental fueron importantes para adaptarse al estilo de vida local a través de la mezcla.

Genes importantes para la inmunidad y cambios en la dieta

“Entre estas variantes, encontramos genes importantes para la inmunidad y para los cambios en la dieta, como se puede esperar de poblaciones humanas que se adaptan a nuevos grupos de patógenos o alimentos”, explica Mayukh Mondal, primer autor conjunto de este trabajo. La evolución humana de la pigmentación de la piel también reveló muchas variantes genéticas para la población estudiada.

“De manera intrigante, también notamos que algunas variantes genéticas implicadas en la pigmentación de la piel de Eurasia Occidental estaban bajo fuerzas selectivas opuestas, algunas se volvieron muy frecuentes y otras casi se perdieron después de los eventos de mezcla. La pigmentación de la piel es seguramente un tema fascinante y complejo y todavía estamos tratando de entender cuáles serían, si las hubiera, las implicaciones adaptativas de la señal que detectamos”, agrega.

El estudio se sumará a la imagen cada vez mayor de la diversidad de los asiáticos del sur y los estudios futuros de los orígenes de la población humana moderna. “Estas señales pueden complementar la imagen que emerge del campo en auge del AND antiguo al proporcionar secuencias genómicas de alta calidad, especialmente para áreas del mundo donde los restos humanos arqueológicos son escasos o están mal conservados”, concluye.

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